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In 1982, the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) created the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) to develop a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across Europe.[6] In 1987, a memorandum of understanding was signed by 13 countries to develop a common cellular telephone system across Europe.[7][8] Finally the system created by SINTEF led by Torleiv Maseng was selected.[9]

In 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland with joint technical infrastructure maintenance from Ericsson.[10] By the end of 1993, over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries

GSM Development

Mobile telecommunications technology began as early as 1920s when the mobile telecommunications system for shortwave developed first at that time. The first public bus telephony system in 1946 served as the basis for modern public mobile telecommunications system.

Following the development of telecommunications technologies such as mobile radio transmission, channel management and mobile switching, various mobile telecommunications systems like cellular phone, mobile call, land cellular mobile telecommunications and satellite mobile telecommunications also emerged rapidly.

Since 1980s, cellular mobile telecommunications has developed from the first generation of simulation cellular mobile telecommunications system to the second generation of digital cellular system. Established in Europe, 1991, GSM is a global system for digital cellular mobile telecommunications and has gained unprecedented development because of its public standards worldwide and strong roaming ability. According to global mobile telecommunications system institution, the number of GSM subscribers is expected to reach 1 billion in over 206 roaming countries by early 2004. GSM mainly provide voice service and low speed data service. Compared with the first generation, GSM has such distinct features as high security, strong anti-interference ability, high spectrum effectiveness and capability with the mean frequency reuse coefficient less than 7.

GPRS,EDGE Development

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new bearer service based on the current GSM system. It can be regarded as the application of GSM in IP and X.25 data network, and also as the application of internet in radio service. GPRS can be used in FTP, WEB browser, E-mail etc

The primary difference between GPRS radio packet data system and the current GSM voice system is that GSM is a circuit-switched system while GPRS is a packet switched system. The basic process of packet switching is to divide the data into several small packets and transfer them to the destination in a storage-switch way through different routes, and then arrange into complete data.

Radio channel is a very rare resource in GSM system. Each channel can only provide a transfer rate of 9.6kbit/s or 14.4kbit/s in circuit-switched system. Combining several slots together provides higher rate, but it can only be enjoyed by one subscriber and is not feasible considering cost-efficiency. Packet switched GPRS can arrange the mobile channels in a flexible way to serve many GPRS data subscribers and make full use of the radio resource. GPRS can theoretically combine a maximum of 8 slots together and provide a bandwidth as high as 171.2kbit/s shared by many subscribers. GPRS is a great leap for GSM system in radio data service which provides a convenient and highly efficient radio packet data service at low costs.

GPRS is especially for interrupted, burst, frequent or small data transmission. It is also adopted in burst large data transmission. Most mobile internet protocols have such features.

According to the GPRS proposal made by ETSI, GPRS can be divided into two stages after commercial use. In the first stage, it offers services such as E-mail, internet browsing. The second stage of GPRS is based on EDGE E-GPRS.

EDGE is a high rate mobile data standard with a data transmission rate as high as 384kbit/s. EDGE can greatly improve the efficiency of GPRS channel coding and fully meet the requirement for broadband in the future radio multimedia application. Different from the current GSM system, EDGE adopts a modulation technology recommended in the 3G mobile telecommunications. As a transition from GPRS to 3G/UMTS, EDGE finished its feasibility study and got ETSI approval in 1997. The standardization process of EDGE consists of two stages. The first stage focused on the enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) and enhanced circuit switching digital service (ECSD) and standardized in 1999. The second stage defined the improved multimedia and real time services and standardized in 2000. EDGE enables network operators to make full use of the current radio network equipment during the transition from GPRS to 3G/UMTS. EDGE has the following primary features:

  1. EDGE has a high rate. The current GSM network mainly uses Guassian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation. EDGE adopts Octal Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with a rate of 384kbit/s in mobile environment and 2Mbit/s in static environment, which generally meets the requirement of the third mobile telecommunication system and all kinds of radio application.
  2. EDGE supports both packet switched data transmission and circuit switched data transmission at the same time. The timeslot rate of packet switched service with EDGE is as high as 11.2-69.2kbit/s, and for circuit switched service, this rate can reach 28.8kbit/s.
  3. EDGE supports both symmetric and asymmetric data transmission. It is a very important feature for mobile network and other data services. In EDGE system, subscribers can enjoy a downlink rate higher than uplink rate.
  4. Technically, EDGE is an improvement for radio interface. To a large extent, it can be regarded as an effective general radio interface technology which promotes the 3G evolution for cellular mobile system.

Evolution to 3G

In order to uniform the global mobile telecommunication standard and telecommunication band, realize 3G global roaming, and improve the spectral efficiency and the data service transmission rate to meet the requirement of multimedia service, International Telecommunications Union -Radiocommunication Sector ITURbegan the study on the 3G mobile telecommunications 14 years ago. By June 30th, 1998, the calling deadline for the standard of the 3G mobile telecommunications radio transmission technology (RTT), ITUR had received sixteen 3G RTT standard resolutions consist of six resolutions for satellite mobile and ten resolutions for land mobile from America, Europe, China, Japan, South Korea etc The TDSCDMA standard resolution proposed by China is one of the ten land mobile 3G RTT resolutions.

ITUR raised the following requirement for the 3G:

—— high speed land mobile:

FDD: terminal at 500km/h mobile speed provides a transmission rate of 144kbit/s.

TDD: terminal at 120km/h mobile speed provides a transmission rate of 144kbit/s.

—— medium and low speed land mobile:

FDD and TDD: terminal at medium and low speed provides a transmission rate of 384kbit/s.

—— land walking and indoor fixed terminal

FDD and TDD: terminal at walking speed or in fixed condition provides a transmission rate of 2Mbit/s.

According to 3G standard requirement, ITUR carried out a two-year study on ten land mobile standard resolutions in terms of evaluation, emulation, integration, key parameter confirmation and finally approved five technical specifications (including that proposed by China) for radio transmission in Turkey ITUR plenary meeting in May 5th, 2000. Among these five specifications, three are based on CDMA and two are based on TDMA.

—— specifications based on CDMA:


IMT2000 CDMA MCcdma2000 MC


—— specifications based on TDMA:

IMT2000 TDMA SCuwc 136


Since TDMA is not a mainstream in the 3G, TDMA SC and TDMA MC are used as regional standards for upgrading IS136 and DECT system. The three RTT specifications based on CDMA, also called one family, three members, become the mainstream in the 3G. Both CDMADS and CDMAMC are frequency division duplex (FDD). CDMA TDD is time division duplex (TDD). ITUR assigns independent band for 3G FDD and TDD; Therefore, FDD and TDD are coexistent and complementary with each other.

Considering core network signaling adaptation and public core network resource, most GSM network operators choose UMTS/WCDMA. Although 3G is called radio broadband multimedia, in fact, the primary task of 3G is to solve the problem of increasing voice service. In China, the current bandwidth is already not in line with the rapid increase of the voice subscribers. Voice service with 3G network can not only meet the requirement of the increasing subscribers but also help to reduce costs and improve service ability. The overall building costs of 3G network voice service is expected to be just half of that of 2G network voice service. Meanwhile, the high-quality voice service at low costs enables subscribers to explore more services 3G provides, such as videotelephony, multimedia and other data services.

During the initial stage, UMTS coverage may not as large as that of GSM, together with the uneven development of 3G worldwide; therefore, the terminal should be GSM/UMTS dualband and support GSMUMTS roaming and system switching, in order to solve the problem of service continuity and cross-operator roaming. In UMTS coverage area, dualband terminal can enjoy UMTS high rate data service and voice service as well. In the dead zone of UMTS, dualband terminal subscribers can still get support from GSM voice service and low rate data service.

Therefore, GSM network will continue to provide voice service and low rate data service for a long time in future. It is a long term task to carry out GSM network optimization and GSM radio planning for the future 3G building.


The new iPad boasts five antennas in all, two for cell reception, two for Wi-Fi/Bluetooth connectivity and one more for GPS.The iPad 3G expands upon the original iPad, which relies on Wi-Fi connectivity, by adding Internet access via AT&T’s data network.Apple used the same baseband processor from Infineon for both iPad models, but that the iPad 3G has a Broadcom BCM4750UBG Single-Chip AGPS, whereas the iPhone 3GS uses an Infineon Hammerhead II


Japan’s NTT DoCoMo began testing on Tuesday of a new cellular data network that should ensure Tokyo remains one of the fastest places on the planet to send and receive data via cell phone.

The new network is scheduled to go into operation in December this year and should initially deliver upload speeds of up to 25M bps (bits per second) and downloads of 75Mbps. The speeds are respectively 5 and 10 times faster than NTT DoCoMo’s current fastest service.

The new network is based on a technology called LTE (Long-Term Evolution), an IP-based system seen as a replacement for 3G-based HSPA (High Speed Packet Access). Its introduction will not only mean faster data transfers but could also reduce the per-byte cost of data communications.

NTT DoCoMo began building the LTE network in December last year and the tests that began on Tuesday will verify the network for speed, latency, stability of inter-cell handover and other factors important to a commercial service.

The December launch will be for a data communications service and DoCoMo plans to begin selling its first LTE-compatible handsets in 2011. Initial service will be restricted to Tokyo but 50 percent of populated areas are expected to be covered by 2014.

The network is being built with an investment of between ¥300 billion and ¥400 billion (US$3.3 billion to $4.4 billion) during the first five years of the roll-out, and comes with an eye on the future.

Eventually NTT DoCoMo expects to offer even faster speeds via the new network. Future upgrades will push download speeds as fast as 300Mbps and upload speeds to 75Mbps.


Mukesh Ambani owned Reliance Industries has bought 95% stake in Infotel Broadband for Rs 4,800 crore. Infotel Broadband will now be a

subsidary of Reliance Industries. Shares of RIL have been buzzing of late on rumours of foray in the telecom sector

Infotel Broadband has won pan India Broadband Wireless Access spectrum license for 22 circles for around Rs 12,848 crore.

Announcement of the deal came within hours of Infotel emerging as the sole winner of broadband spectrum for the entire country for Rs 12,872 crore.

This marks Mukesh Ambani group’s entry into telecom sector in less than a month of he and his younger brother Anil reaching a truce by ending all the no-compete agreements to enable each other an opportunity to enter and invest in areas hitherto barred under the family settlement reached in 2005 for division of Reliance empire.

It was reported in The Economic Times that Mahendra Nahata-owned Himachal Futuristic’s arm, Infotel Broadband Services, could be a candidate for acquisition by RIL.

The government today raised over Rs 38,300 crore as the 16-day long auction for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) spectrum came to an end.

The BWA auction had two slots of 20 MHz of pan-India spectrum. BSNL and MTNL, which have been given BWA spectrum ahead of private players, will have to pay the equivalent of the winning bid in each service area.


Bharti Airtel attained a new high with the completion of acquisition of Zain Group’s operations in 15 African countries. The deal is valued at $ 10.7 billion and extends Bharti Airtel’s footprint to cover 1.8 billion of the world’s population.

India’s leading operator, Bharti’s subscriber base now touches over 180 million post completion of deal and its operations now span over 18 countries across Asia and Africa. Zain’s subscriber base in the mentioned areas totals more than 42 million. The new areas of operations for Bharti are Burkina Faso, Chad, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. Zain was the market leader in 10 of these countries and second in 4 countries.


The rapid rise of Huawei Technologies continued in the fiscal 2009-10 with the company racing past its fierce European competitors Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) reveals new findings by Voice&Data.

Huawei’s revenues during the mentioned period increased from Rs.6,240 crore to Rs.11,000 crore at a yearly growth rate of 76.3%. Its Chinese counterpart, ZTE Corp. was the only other vendor to register a phenomenal growth rate of 50% with revenue rising from Rs.4,800 crore to Rs.7,200 crore.